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saco-indonesia.com, Para pedagang kaki lima di Pasar Minggu untuk sementara tetap diperbolehkan berjualan di kawasan tersebut pada waktu-waktu yang telah ditetapkan.

JAKARTA, Saco- Indoensia.com — Para pedagang kaki lima di Pasar Minggu untuk sementara tetap diperbolehkan berjualan di kawasan tersebut pada waktu-waktu yang telah ditetapkan. Kelonggaran ini diberikan karena belum ada lokasi binaan untuk menampung semua PKL.

Wakil Wali Kota Jakarta Selatan Rustam Effendi mengatakan, jumlah PKL di ruas Jalan Raya Ragunan, Pasar Minggu, itu mencapai ribuan orang. "Kalau dari pagi hingga sore ada sekitar 500 PKL, sementara kalau dari malam hingga pagi jumlah PKL yang berdagang di bahu jalan dan trotoar bertambah empat kali lipat," ujar Wakil Wali Kota Jakarta Selatan Rustam Effendi, Senin (3/6/2013).

Meski demikian, Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta belum memiliki lokasi baru untuk menampung semua pedagang tersebut. Oleh karena itu, Rustam mengatakan bahwa para pedagang masih diberi kesempatan untuk berjualan mulai dari pukul 20.00 hingga pukul 05.00 WIB. Adapun mulai pukul 05.00 hingga pukul 20.00 WIB, petugas dari Dinas Perhubungan DKI dan Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja akan melakukan penjagaan agar pedagang tidak berjualan hingga ke jalan raya.

"Kita akan lakukan penjagaan dilakukan dari pukul 05.00 sampai 20.00 agar 500 pedagang tetap berada di lokasi binaan dan tidak keluar ke jalan lagi," kata Rustam.

Sekitar 750 aparat gabungan dari Dishub DKI Jakarta, Satpol PP, kepolisian, Dinas Kebersihan DKI, serta PD Pasar Jaya melakukan penertiban terhadap PKL yang biasa berjualan di Jalan Raya Ragunan, Senin pagi. Sekitar 500 lapak ditertibkan dalam proses penertiban tersebut. Selain penertiban PKL, dilakukan pula penataan alur lalu lintas untuk trayek angkutan umum menuju ke terminal untuk mengurai kemacetan di Pasar Minggu.

 

Sumber : Tribunnews/Kompas.com

Editor :Liwon Maulana

Satu demi satu misteri penyebab diabetes melitus tipe 2 mulai terungkap.

Oleh IRWAN JULIANTO

Saco-Indonesia.com,- Satu demi satu misteri penyebab diabetes melitus tipe 2 mulai terungkap. Para peneliti Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) baru saja memublikasikan temuan mereka bahwa ada satu jenis protein atau hormon khusus yang ditemukan dalam sel-sel lemak yang terbukti membantu mengatur bagaimana gula darah dikendalikan dan dimetabolisasi untuk energi di dalam hati. Ini dikatakan akan membuka salah satu jalan bagi pengobatan diabetes tipe 2 yang menjangkiti ratusan juta penduduk dunia.

Diabetes tipe ini tidak bergantung pada insulin dan terjadi pada orang-orang dewasa (adult onset), berbeda dengan diabetes tipe 1 yang bergantung pada insulin dan terjadi sejak bayi. Diabetes tipe 2 dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu kelainan metabolik yang ditandai dengan tingginya kadar glukosa darah akibat terjadinya kekurangan dan resistansi insulin. Kemampuan sel-sel beta pankreas berkurang bahkan rusak sehingga pasien mulai mengalami diabetes, dengan gejala-gejala seperti banyak makan (polifagia), banyak minum (polidipsia), dan banyak kencing (poliuria).

Jumlah kasus diabetes tipe 2 hampir sepuluh kali lipat kasus diabetes tipe 1 yang terjadi karena kerusakan pankreas sejak bayi. Hingga sekarang diyakini bahwa kegemukan menjadi penyebab utama terjadinya diabetes tipe 2 pada orang-orang yang memang secara genetis sudah membawa gen pembawa penyakit ini.

Dua-tiga dekade lalu sudah diketahui adanya hubungan antara kegemukan dan diabetes tipe 2, tetapi belum jelas apakah kegemukan memicu diabetes jenis ini ataukah hanya mempercepat terjadinya. Riset di Amerika Serikat menunjukkan, orang-orang dengan obesitas tiga kali lebih mudah terjangkit diabetes dibandingkan dengan mereka yang tidak kegemukan. Makin tua seseorang, risiko terkena diabetes tipe 2 juga kian besar. Orang-orang berusia 65 tahun, misalnya, lebih mungkin terserang dibandingkan dengan mereka yang berusia di bawah 20 tahun.

Diabetes tipe 2 juga diketahui erat hubungannya dengan faktor keturunan. Jika dalam keluarga Anda ada yang mengidap diabetes, kemungkinan Anda terjangkit diabetes cukup besar.

Jika ayah atau ibu Anda dan kakek atau nenek serta bibi atau paman Anda menderita penyakit ini, peluang Anda mengalami diabetes tipe 2 mendekati 85 persen. Jika ayah dan nenek mengidap diabetes, risiko Anda cuma 60 persen. Jika hanya ibu yang menderita, maka 22 persen risikonya bagi Anda akan menderita pula.

Diabetes tipe 2 umumnya terjadi pada orang dewasa akibat perubahan gaya hidup, berkurangnya kegiatan jasmani, dan jenis makanan/minuman yang serba fast food dan soft drink. Namun, saat ini diabetes tipe 2 ditemukan juga pada anak- anak dan remaja di Asia.

Penyakit kronis ini diyakini menyebabkan usia harapan hidup bagi penderitanya sepuluh tahun lebih pendek dibandingkan dengan orang-orang non-diabetik akibat komplikasi penyakit jantung koroner, stroke, dan gagal ginjal. Diabetes tipe 2 juga menyebabkan kecacatan, seperti kebutaan akibat komplikasi retinopati dan meningkatnya risiko sebesar 20 kali amputasi tungkai bawah. Pengidap diabetes ini mudah lupa dan mengalami impotensi.

Multipatologi

Selama berpuluh tahun para peneliti dan dokter dihadapkan pada misteri: tidak semua orang yang kegemukan atau resistan terhadap insulin mengidap diabetes tipe 2. Bahkan, cukup banyak orang yang amat gemuk tak terserang penyakit ini. Para ilmuwan lalu berteori bahwa ada suatu faktor yang tak dikenal yang terlibat dalam metabolisme glukosa dalam hati, dan mungkin kehadiran atau absennya elemen ini, dapat menentukan siapa yang terkena diabetes tipe 2.

Dalam jurnal Cell Metabolism edisi 7 Mei 2013, para peneliti HSPH mengungkapkan, dunia ilmiah sudah lama mengetahui bahwa salah satu peristiwa kunci bagi berkembangnya diabetes tipe 2 adalah produksi glukosa yang tak terkontrol dari hati.

”Namun, mekanisme yang mendasarinya tetap masih sukar dipahami,” kata Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kepala Departemen Genetika dan Penyakit-penyakit Kompleks, dan JS Simmons, profesor genetika dan metabolisme di HSPH. ”Kami sekarang berhasil mengidentifikasi aP2 sebagai suatu hormon baru yang dikeluarkan dari sel-sel lemak yang mengontrol fungsi kritis ini.”

Lewat percobaan dengan mencit di laboratorium memakai teknologi mutakhir ditemukan bahwa jika jumlah aP2 berlebih, timbullah diabetes. Sebaliknya, jika hormon ini diblok atau di- switch-off, produksi glukosa dari hati dapat dikontrol lebih baik sehingga manifestasinya berupa diabetes tipe 2 dan penyakit-penyakit metabolik lainnya pun dapat dicegah.

Kemampuan sebuah organ—dalam hal ini jaringan lemak—begitu langsung dan menentukan dalam mengendalikan tindakan organ lain, yaitu hati, amat menarik, kata Hotamisligil. ”Kami menduga sistem komunikasi antara jaringan lemak dan hati telah berevolusi untuk membantu sel-sel lemak memberi komando kepada hati untuk menyuplai tubuh dengan glukosa pada saat-saat terjadinya kekurangan nutrien. Betapa pun, ketika sel-sel lemak yang membesar kehilangan kendali terhadap sinyal ini karena kondisi obesitas, tingkat aP2 dalam darah naik, glukosa diguyurkan ke dalam aliran darah dan tidak dapat dibersihkan oleh jaringan-jaringan lain. Hasilnya adalah tingginya kadar glukosa darah dan diabetes 2.”

Guru Besar FK UI yang mendalami diabetes, Sidartawan Soegondo, menyatakan, temuan para ilmuwan Harvard ini merupakan sumbangan berarti bagi perkembangan ilmu kedokteran. ”Akhir-akhir ini saya mengajarkan bahwa diabetes tipe 2 adalah penyakit dengan multipatologi,” ujarnya ketika dihubungi pada Selasa (21/5). Kini, selain organ pankreas, diabetes tipe 2 diketahui pula dipicu juga oleh metabolisme sembilan organ lain, antara lain hati dan ginjal.

 

Sumber :Kompas Cetak/http://health.kompas.com/read/2013/05/22/06524140/Harapan.Baru.untuk.Terapi.Diabetes.Tipe.2
Editor :Liwon Maulana

Mr. Pfaff was an international affairs columnist and author who found Washington’s intervention in world affairs often misguided.

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

Continue reading the main story Video
Play Video|1:17

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

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