Sparpart genset murah genset perkins genset foton genset cummins murah genset lovol 100 kva harga

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Wondama

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Wondama Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Wondama

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G Murah di Toli-Toli

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G Murah di Toli-Toli Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G Murah di Toli-Toli

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Bintuni

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Bintuni Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Teluk Bintuni

GENSET CUMMINS 10 KVA - 1000 KVA Type Open Dan Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Sungai Penuh

GENSET CUMMINS 10 KVA - 1000 KVA Type Open Dan Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Sungai Penuh Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

GENSET CUMMINS 10 KVA - 1000 KVA Type Open Dan Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Sungai Penuh

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Tambrauw

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Tambrauw Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Tambrauw

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 30Kva Built Up Murah di Blora

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 30Kva Built Up Murah di Blora Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 30Kva Built Up Murah di Blora

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong Selatan

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong Selatan Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong Selatan

Jual Sparepart Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva Murah di Magetan

Jual Sparepart Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva Murah di Magetan Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva Murah di Magetan

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Sorong

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G di Kupang

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G di Kupang Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 40 kva Prime power type 1004G di Kupang

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Raja Ampat

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Raja Ampat Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Raja Ampat

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Bondowoso

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Bondowoso Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Bondowoso

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Maybrat

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Maybrat Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Maybrat

Jual genset LOVOL OPEN DAN SILENT KAP 45KVA -175KVA bergaransi dan berkualitas di Malinau

Jual genset LOVOL OPEN DAN SILENT KAP 45KVA -175KVA bergaransi dan berkualitas di Malinau Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual genset LOVOL OPEN DAN SILENT KAP 45KVA -175KVA bergaransi dan berkualitas di Malinau

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Manokwari

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Manokwari Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Manokwari

Jual genset perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 135 kva Prime power type 1006TAG1A Murah di Kepulauan Talaud

Jual genset perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 135 kva Prime power type 1006TAG1A Murah di Kepulauan Talaud Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual genset perkins CHINA/LOVOL Kap 135 kva Prime power type 1006TAG1A Murah di Kepulauan Talaud

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Kaimana

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Kaimana Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Sparepart Genset Doosan Murah di Kaimana

Jual Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Banyuasin

Jual Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Banyuasin Hubungi : 0821 - 1310 - 3112/(021) 9224 - 2423 PT. Tribuana Diesel Adalah penjualan Generating-Set (genset) berkualitas import (builtup) bagi anda yang membutuhkan product berkualitas serta pengadaan yang cepat urgent tanpa berbelit-belit, Genset kami di lengkapi dengan dokumen Certificate Of Original , Manual book engine dan manual book generator, Kami sediakan Genset kapasitas 10 Kva - 650Kva (ANDA PESAN KAMI ANTAR).

Jual Genset Cummins 37 Kva Silent bergaransi dan berkualitas di Banyuasin

saco-indonesia.com, Munculnya Bitcoin telah menimbulkan kekhawatiran oleh sejumlah pihak akan besarnya potensi penyelewengan den

saco-indonesia.com, Munculnya Bitcoin telah menimbulkan kekhawatiran oleh sejumlah pihak akan besarnya potensi penyelewengan dengan menggunakan mata uang tersebut. Terlebih, sudah banyak kasus di mana mata uang vitrual terbukti disalahgunakan untuk hal tersebut.

Belum lepas dari ingatan kita bagaimana FBI begitu saja menutup layanan transaksi mata uang virtual melalui Liberty Reserve. Kepolisian Federal Amerika Serikat tersebut dengan menganggap bahwa LR, nama bekennya, selama ini telah digunakan untuk sarana pencucian uang hasil transaksi benda haram mulai dari narkoba hingga senjata api.

Namun, matinya LR juga tak langsung membunuh mata uang virtual. Kini muncul Bitcoin beserta koin virtual lainnya yang bisa didapatkan siapa saja dan bebas dari jangkauan tangan hukum.

Para pelaku kriminal pun juga memanfaatkan dengan baik Bitcoin sehingga kemudian mata uang virtual ini lebih dekat konotasinya ke arah negatif. Seakan yang telah memiliki Bitcoin adalah para pelaku kriminal atau mereka yang suka jual beli barang haram.

Lagi-lagi polisi Amerika Serikat juga telah menemukan bukti bahwa Bitcoin digunakan untuk kegiatan haram. Dua eksekutif Bitcoin telah ditangkap dengan tuduhan mencuci uang hasil kegiatan ilegal terutama jual beli narkoba di Silk Road.

Tertangkapnya dua orang ini telah menimbulkan anggapan bahwa sepertinya AS mulai waspada dengan persebaran mata uang virtual ini. Bahkan, mungkin saja di masa depan nasib Bitcoin tak jauh beda dengan LR.

Meski begitu, pihak berwenang sendiri sampai saat ini memang masih kesulitan dalam menangkap pelaku kejahatan yang menggunakan Bitcoin. Pasalnya, mata uang satu ini tesimpan dalam komputasi awan dan terenkripsi secara digital. Sehingga, sangat sulit bagi siapa saja untuk dapat melacaknya.

Namun begitu, tren bank sentral beberapa negara di dunia telah menyatakan bahwa Bitcoin tidak bisa dijamin keabsahannya oleh negara karena . Sehingga, bisa saja muncul gerakan global untuk dapat memberantas penggunaan Bitcoin.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

saco-indonesia.com, Jenis-jenis Valve dan Fungsinya Jenis-jenis valve dan fungsinya :   1. Gate Valve Gate Valve a

saco-indonesia.com,

Jenis-jenis Valve dan Fungsinya

Jenis-jenis valve dan fungsinya :
 
1. Gate Valve
Gate Valve adalah valve yang paling sering dipakai pada sistem perpipaan. Fungsinya untuk dapat membuka dan menutup aliran (on-off), tetapi tidak bisa untuk mengatur besar kecil aliran (throttling). Kelebihan Gate Valve, minimnya halangan/ resistan saat valve ini telah dibuka penuh, sehingga aliran bisa
maksimal. Gate Valve telah mengontrol aliran melalui badan valve yang berbentuk pipa, dengan sebuah lempengan atau baji vertikal  yang bisa bergeser naik turun saat handel valve diputar. Valve ini telah didesain untuk dapat mengatur posisi terbuka penuh, atau tertutup penuh. Jika valve ini dalam keadaan setengah terbuka, maka akan dapat menyebabkan pengikisan pada badan valve, dan turbulensi aliran zat bisa dapat menyebabkan getaran pada baji valve sehingga dapat menghasilkan suara gemeretak.

2. Globe Valve
Globe Valve biasanya akan digunakan pada situasi dimana pengaturan besar kecil aliran (throttling) sangat diperlukan. Dengan mudah memutar handel valve, besarnya aliran zat yang telah melewati valve bisa diatur. Dudukan valve yang sejajar dengan aliran, telah membuat globe valve efisien ketika dapat mengatur besar kecilnya aliran dengan minimum erosi piringan dan dudukan. Namun demikian tahanan didalam valve cukup besar. Desain globe valve yang sedemikian rupa, telah memaksa adanya perubahan arah aliran zat didalam valve, sehingga tekanan menurun drastis dan dapat menyebabkan turbulensi di dalam valve itu sendiri. Dengan demikian, Globe Valve tidak disarankan diinstal pada sistem yang menghindari penurunan tekanan, dan sistem yang menghindari tahanan pada aliran.

3. Angle Valve  
Sama seperti globe valve, angle valve juga akan digunakan pada situasi dimana pengaturan besar kecil aliran telah diperlukan (throttling). Namun angle valve telah di buat dengan sudut 90°, hal ini untuk dapat mengurangi pemakaian elbow 90° dan fitting tambahan.
 
4. Check Valve
Check Valve telah memiliki perbedaan yang sangat signifikan dari Gate Valve dan Globe Valve. Valve ini telah di disain untuk dapat mencegah aliran balik. Ada beberapa jenis check valve, tapi ada 2 jenis yang paling umum yaitu Swing Check dan Lift Check. Swing Check Valve biasanya telah dipasangkan dengan Gate Valve, sedangkan Lift Check Valve oleh beberapa pabrikan digunakan untuk dapat menggantikan fungsi Ball Valve sebagai Ball Check Valve. Check Valve tidak menggunakan handel untuk dapat mengatur aliran, tapi dengan menggunakan gravitasi dan tekanan dari aliran fluida itu sendiri. Karena fungsinya yang juga dapat mencegah aliran balik (backflow). Check Valve juga sering digunakan sebagai pengaman dari sebuah equipment dalam sistem perpipaan.
 
5. Ball Valve
Ball Valve adalah alternatif murah dari jenis valve-valve yang lain. Ball valve dengan menggunakan bola logam yang tengahnya ada lubang tembus, diapit oleh dudukan valve untuk dapat mengontrol aliran. Sering dipakai pada proses hydrocarbon, ball valve mampu untuk dapat mengatur besar kecil aliran gas dan uap terutama untuk tekanan rendah. Valve ini juga dapat dengan cepat ditutup dan cukup kedap untuk menahan fluida/ zat cair. Ball valve tidak menggunakan handwheel, tetapi dengan menggunakan ankle untuk dapat membuka atau menutup valve dengan sudut 90°.
 
6. Butterfly Valve
Butterfly Valve telah memiliki bentuk yang sangat unik jika dibandingkan dengan valve-valve yang lain. Butterfly dengan menggunakan plat bundar atau wafer yang dioperasikan dengan ankel untuk posisi membuka penuh atau menutup penuh dengan sudut 90°. Wafer ini tetap berada ditengah aliran, dan dihubungkan ke ankel melalui shaft. Saat valve dalam keadaan tertutup, wafer tersebut tegak lurus dengan arah aliran, sehingga aliran terbendung, dan saat valve terbuka wafer sejajar/ segaris dengan aliran, sehingga zat dapat mengalir melalui valve. Butterfly valve telah memiliki turbulensi dan penurunan tekanan (pressure drop) yang minimal. Valve ini sangat bagus untuk pengoperasian on-off ataupun throttling, dan bagus untuk dapat mengontrol aliran zat cair atau gas dalam jumlah yang besar. Namun demikian valve ini biasanya tidak memiliki kekedapan yang bagus, dan harus digunakan pada situasi/ sistem yang memiliki tekanan rendah (low-pressure).

7. Relief Valve
Relief valve telah memiliki fungsi yang sangat berbeda dari valve-valve yang lain. Valve ini telah didisain khusus untuk dapat melepas tekanan berlebih yang ada di equipment dan sistem perpipaan. Untuk dapat mencegah kerusakan pada equipment, dan lebih penting lagi cedera pada pekerja, relief valve dapat melepas kenaikan tekanan sebelum menjadi lebih ekstrim. Relief valve menggunakan pegas baja, yang secara otomatis akan terbuka jika tekanan mencapai level yang tidak aman. Level tekanan pada valve ini bisa diatur, sehingga bisa ditentukan pada level tekanan berapa valve ini akan terbuka. Ketika tekanan kembali normal, relief valve secara otomatis akan tertutup kembali.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Besi Beton juga merupakan bahan yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam pembuatan bangunan rumah, toko, kantor ataupun jembatan. Hampir sel

Besi Beton juga merupakan bahan yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam pembuatan bangunan rumah, toko, kantor ataupun jembatan. Hampir seluruh pembangunan telah menggunakan besi beton baik dalam bentuk diameter kecil hingga besar.

Dewasa ini, permintaan besi beton juga semakin banyak disetiap kotanya. Namun, pendistribusi di setiap kota masih kurang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan besi beton. Oleh karena itu, besi beton batu telah menjadi solusi distributor besibeton di wilayah Semarang, Jawa Tengah. Selain itu, besibetonbaru juga mencakup wilayah Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta.

 

saco-indonesia.com, Sebuah bus yang telah berisi puluhan penumpang terjun bebas ke dalam sungai Wonoboyo, Kecamatan Bergas, Sema

saco-indonesia.com, Sebuah bus yang telah berisi puluhan penumpang terjun bebas ke dalam sungai Wonoboyo, Kecamatan Bergas, Semarang. Diduga sopir telah mengantuk saat mengemudikan bus yang bernama Bus Gunung Harta tersebut.

"Kejadian tadi sekitar jam 02.00 WIB dini hari . Diduga sopir mengantuk," ujar petugas piket Polsek Bergas Aiptu Nyoman, saat dihubungi, Selasa (31/12).

Nyoman juga mengatakan saat itu bus tengah mengangkut penumpang yang cukup banyak. "Sekitar puluhan penumpang yang ada di dalam bus," tuturnya.

Petugas juga sudah melakukan evakuasi terhadap bus malang beserta para penumpang.
Para korban sendiri telah dilarikan ke Rumah Sakit Ken Saras, Ungaran, Semarang.

Menurut Nyoman, Bus Gunung Harta yang telah mengalami kecelakaan itu sedang dalam perjalanan dari Jakarta menuju Ponorogo, Jawa Tengah.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

saco-indonesia.com, Hujan yang telah mengguyur Jakarta pagi ini telah menyebabkan Jalan Administrasi Negara I, Tanah Abang, Jaka

saco-indonesia.com, Hujan yang telah mengguyur Jakarta pagi ini telah menyebabkan Jalan Administrasi Negara I, Tanah Abang, Jakarta Pusat longsor. Peristiwa itu telah terjadi pada pukul 09.15 WIB.

"Longsor sepanjang 50 meter," ujar petugas Polsek Tanah Abang Iptu Sardino, Selasa (31/12).

Sardino juga mengatakan akibat kejadian itu empat mobil telah terperosok ke dalam kali. "Itu mobil memang sedang parkir di situ," katanya.

Petugas yang ke lokasi langsung melakukan evakuasi. Tidak ada korban jiwa dalam insiden itu.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

saco-indonesia.com, Udara yang tidak menentu memang juga sangat mengakhawatirkan. Hujan juga bisa mendadak turun dan suhu udara

saco-indonesia.com, Udara yang tidak menentu memang juga sangat mengakhawatirkan. Hujan juga bisa mendadak turun dan suhu udara akan menjadi tinggi. Selain payung, tentunya jaket juga bisa menjadi alternatif pilihan yang sesuai. Apalagi fungsi utama jaket untuk dapat melindungi tubuh kian menarik dengan model yang sesuai tren. Di antara pilihan yang beragam, bagaimana cara untuk memilih jaket yang pas di badan? Simak tipsnya di sini, seperti dikutip dari Mag for Women.

1. Ajak Teman
Pendapat kedua selalu penting ketika kita bingung dalam menentukan pilihan. Kita juga terkadang bingung dengan beragam model yang telah ditawarkan. Nah, di sinilah fungsi teman. Teman yang baik akan selalu memberikan pendapat yang jujur dan apa adanya. Sehingga kita tidak lagi bingung dalam menentukan pilihan. Mengajak teman untuk berbelanja juga selalu menjadi kegiatan yang sangat menyenangkan.

2. Jangan Tertipu
Seringkali pramuniaga juga menawarkan pilihan jaket mahal yang sebenarnya belum tentu cocok untuk kita. Jangan terpengaruh, mereka hanya menjalankan target penjualan. Model yang sedang menjadi tren bisa jadi tidak sesuai dengan kepribadian dan kebutuhan Anda. Tidak mau kan memakai jaket bulu-bulu ala antartika di negara yang tropis ini?

3. Coba Dahulu
Menjatuhkan pilihan yang tepat tidak bisa terburu-buru. Ambil beberapa pilihan dan cobalah di kamar ganti. Penampilan yang sangat menarik di manekin belum tentu cocok di tubuh Anda. Dengan mencobanya terlebih dahulu Anda juga akan tahu bagian mana yang pas dan tidak.

4. Utamakan Kenyamanan
Model yang bagus juga tidak menutup kemungkinan akan bahan yang jelek. Pastikan saat mencoba Anda menggerakkan tangan, duduk dan berjalan. Jika dengan gerakan ini merasa tidak nyaman, berarti jaket ini belum tepat untuk Anda.

5. Jangan Ditumpuk
Lepaskan jaket atau jas yang Anda kenakan sebelum mencoba jaket yang ingin dibeli. Memakai pakaian yang ditumpuk dapat memperbesar ukuran tubuh Anda yang sebenarnya. Dengan begitu, Anda akan tahu ukuran mana yang pas di tubuh.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

saco-indonesia.com, Indonesia merupakan negara dengan sistem sanitasi ( pengelolaan air limbah domestic ) terburuk ketiga di Asi

saco-indonesia.com, Indonesia merupakan negara dengan sistem sanitasi ( pengelolaan air limbah domestic ) terburuk ketiga di Asia Tenggara setelah Laos dan Myanmar ( ANTARA News, 2006 ). Menurut data Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia tahun 2002, tidak kurang dari 400.000 m3 / hari limbah rumah tangga yang dibuang langsung ke sungai dan tanah, tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu. 61,5 % dari jumlah tersebut telah terdapat di Pulau Jawa.

Pembuangan akhir limbah tinja umumnya telah dibuang dengan menggunakan beberapa cara antara lain dengan menggunakan septic tank, dibuang langsung ke sungai atau danau, dibuang ke tanah , dan ada juga yang dibuang ke kolam atau pantai.
Di beberapa daerah pedesaan di Indonesia, telah masih banyak dijumpai oleh masyarakat yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan dengan sanitasi yang masih sangat minim. Masih sering dijumpai oleh sebagian masyarakat yang telah membuang hajatnya di sungai karena tidak mempunyai saluran pembuangan khusus untuk proses pembuangan air limbah rumah tangga maupun air buangan dari kamar mandi. Bahkan terkadang juga masih dijumpai masyarakat yang membuang hajatnya di pekarangan rumahnya masing-masing. Hal ini telah terjadi selain disebabkan karena factor ekonomi, faktor kebiasaan yang sulit dirubah dan kualitas pendidikan yang relative rendah dari masyarakat pun juga memang sangat berpengaruh besar terhadap pola hidup masyarakat.

Berdasarkan perkiraan WHO/ UNICEF, sekitar 60 persen penduduk di kawasan pedesaan di Indonesia telah kekurangan akses terhadap sarana sanitasi yang pantas. Kegiatan mandi dan mencuci pakaian di sungai serta buang air besar di tempat terbuka telah membuat orang mudah terpapar penyakit, mengontaminasi air tanah dan permukaan, serta menurunkan kualitas tanah dan tempat tinggal. Perempuan dan anak-anak berada dalam risiko.

1. PENGERTIAN SANITASI
Sanitasi adalah bagian dari system pembuangan air limbah, yang khususnya telah menyangkut pembuangan air kotor dari rumah tangga, dapat juga dari sisa-sisa proses industry, pertanian, peternakan dan rumah sakit (sector kesehatan).
Sanitasi juga merupakan suatu usaha untuk dapat memberikan fasilitas di dalam rumah yang dapat menjamin agar rumah selalu bersih dan sehat. Tentunya tang ditunjang penyediaan air bersih yang cukup, dan pembuangan air kotoran yang lancar.

2. AIR LIMBAH
Air Limbah adalah air buangan yang telah dihasilkan dari suatu proses pruduksi industri maupun domestik (rumah tangga), yang terkadang kehadirannya pada suatu saat dan tempat tertentu tidak dikehendaki lingkungan karena juga tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis. Dalam konsentrasi dan kuantitas tertentu, kehadiran limbah juga dapat berdampak negative terhadap lingkungan tertutama kesehatan manusia sehingga dilakukan penanganan terhadap limbah.

Air kotor adalah air bekas pakai yang sudah tidak memenuhi syarat kesehatan lagi dan harus dibuang agar tidak dapat menimbulkan wabah penyakit
Beberapa hal yang berkaitan dengan pengertian dan kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan limbah cair menurut PP 82 tahun 2001 yaitu :
1. Air adalah semua air yang telah terdapat diatas dan dibawah permukaan tanah, kecuali air laut dan fosil.
2. Sumber air adalah wadah air yang telah terdapat diatas dan dibawah permukaan tanah, seperti, mata air, sungai, rawa, danau, waduk, dan muara.
3. Pengelolaan kualitas air adalah upaya dalam pemeliharaan air sehingga dapat tercapai kualitas air yang diinginkan sesuai peruntukannya untuk dapat menjamin kualitas tetap dalam kondisi alamiahnya.
4. Pengendalian pencemaran air adalah upaya untuk pencegahan dan penanggulangan pencemaran air serta pemulihan kualitas air untuk dapat menjamin kualitas air agar sesuai dengan baku mutu air.
5. Pencemaran air adalah masuknya makhluk hidup, zat, energy, dan atau komponen lain kedalam air oleh kegiatan manusia sehingga kualitas air turun sampai ketingkat tertentu yang dapat menyebabkan air tidak berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya.
6. Limbah cair adalah sisa dari sutu hasil usaha dan atau kegiatan yang berwujud cair.
7. Baku mutu limbah cair adalah, ukuran batas atau kadar unsure pencemar yang ditenggang keberadaannya dalam limbah cair yang akan dibuang atau dilepas kedalam sumber air dari suatu usaha atau kegiatan.

3. ALAT PEMBUANGAN AIR KOTOR
Alat pembuangan air kotor dapat berupa :
- Kamar mandi, washtafel, keran cuci
- WC
- Dapur
Air dari kamar mandi tidak boleh dibuang secara bersama sama dengan air dari WC maupun dari dapur. Sehingga harus dibuatkan seluran masing-masing.
Diameter pipa pembuangan dari kamar mandi adalah 3” (7,5 cm), pipa pembuangan dari WC adalah 4”(10 cm), dan dari dapur boleh dipakai diameter 2”(5cm). pipa pembuangan juga dapat diletakkan pada suatu “shaft”, yaitu lobang menerus yang disediakan untuk tempat pipa air bersih dan pipa air kotor pada bangunan bertingkat untuk dapat memudahkan pengontrolan. Atau dapat dipasang pada kolom-kolom beton dari atas sampai bawah. Setelah sampai bawah, semua pipa air kotor harus juga merupakan saluran tertutup di dalam tanah agar tidak menimbulkan wabah penyakit dan bau tak sedap.
Dibawah lantai, semua pipa sanitasi diberi lobang control, yang sewaktu-waktu dapat dibuka bila terjadi kemacetan.

4. JENIS-JENIS UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH
a. SEPTICTANK
Sistem septic tank sebenarnya adalah sumur rembesan atau sumur kotoran. Septic tank juga merupakan sitem sanitasi yang terdiri dari pipa saluran dari kloset, bak penampungan kotoran cair dan padat, bak resapan, serta pipa pelepasan air bersih dan udara.

Hal-hal yang yang harus diperhatikan saat pembangunan septic tank agar tidak mencemari air dan tanah sekitarnya adalah :
1. jarak minimal dari sumur air bersih sekurangnya 10m.
2. untuk dapat membuang air keluaran dari septic tank perlu dibuat daerah resapan dengan lantai septic tank dibuat miring kearah ruang lumpur.
3. septic tank direncanakan untuk pembuangan kotoran rumah tangga dengan jumlah air limbah antara 70-90 % dari volume penggunaan air bersih.
4. waktu tinggal air limbah didalam tangki diperkirakan minimal 24 jam.
5. besarnya ruang lumpur diperkirakan untuk dapat menampung lumpur yang telah dihasilkan setiap orang rata-rata 30-40 liter/orang/tahun dan waktu pengambilan lumpur diperhitungkan 2-4 tahun.
6. pipa air masuk kedalam tangki hendaknya selalu lebih tinggi kurang lebh 2.5 cm dari pipa air keluar.
7. septic tank harus dilengkapi dengan lubang pemeriksaan dan lubang penghawaan untuk dapat membuang gas hasil penguraian.
Agar septic tank tidak mudah penuh dan mampat, awet dan tahan lama perlu diperhatikan hal berikut :
1. Kemiringan Pipa
Kemiringan pipa menentukan kelancaran proses pembuangan limbah. Selisih ketinggian kloset dan permukaan air bak penampung kotoran minimal 2 %, artinya setiap 100cm terdapat perbedaan ketinggian 2cm.
2. Pemilihan Pipa yang tepat
Pipa saluran sebaiknya berupa PVC. Ukuran minimal adalah 4 inchi. Rumah yang telah memiliki jumlah toilet yang banyak sebaiknya harus menggunakan pipa yang lebih besar. Perancangan saluran diusahakan dibuat lurus tanpa belokan, karena belokan atau sudut juga dapat membuat mampat.
3. Sesuaikan Kapasitas Septic tank
Untuk rumah tinggal dengan jumlah penghuni empat orang, cukup dibuat septic tank dengan ukuran (1.5×1.5×2)m. bak endapan dan sumur resapan bias dibuat dengan ukuran (1x1x2)m. semakin banyak penghuni rumah maka semakin besar ukuran yang telah dibutuhkan.
4. Bak Harus Kuat dan Kedap Air
Septic tank harus terbuat dari bahan yang tahan terhadap korosi, rapat air dan tahan lama. Konstruksi septic tank juga harus kuat untuk menahan gaya-gaya yang timbul akibat tekanan air, tanah maupun beban lainnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Corolla Liftback (TE71) Ini merupakan SEDAN TERBAIK terakhir untuk semua model yang berpenggerak roda belakang. Di Jepang ban

Corolla Liftback (TE71)

Ini merupakan SEDAN TERBAIK terakhir untuk semua model yang berpenggerak roda belakang. Di Jepang banyak sekali varian dan bentuknya. Ada Sedan 2 dan 4 pintu, Hardtop, Coupe, Liftback, Station Wagon, dan Van. Mesin yang tersedia adalah 1300 cc 4K, 1500 cc 5K, 1600 cc 2T dan 2T-G(DOHC). Model di Amerika bermesin 2T-C(1600 cc) dan 3T-C(1800 cc) dengan bentik body Sedan 2 pintu, 4 pintu, Coupe, Hardtop, Liftback, dan Wagon. Perusahaan karoseri di California ada yang membuat Corolla Convertible dengan atap kanvas yang bisa dibuka berbasis Corolla Hardtop.

MOBIL SEDAN COROLLA

Di Indonesia hanya tersedia dalam variant DX 4 pintu bermesin 1300 cc 4K. Platform generasi ini juga dipakai untuk Daihatsu Charmant. Corolla DX di Indonesia tahun 1980 memiliki 4 lampu depan yg berbentuk bulat, bumper masih menggunakan besi dengan karet di kedua ujungnya, pada tahun 1981 mengalami perubahan pada lampu depan jadi bentuk petak. Model tahun 1982 mempunyai perbedaan pada lampu sen depan yg melebar ke samping dan lampu belakang baru, sedangkan tahun 1983 Corolla DX hadir dengan tachometer dan bumper urethane yang panjang.

Cuci Sofa berkualitas : Cuci Sofa,Cuci Springbed,Cuci Karpet,Cuci Kursi Kantor,Cuci Sofa Bed,Cuci Kursi Kantor,Cuci Jok Mobil,C

Cuci Sofa berkualitas : Cuci Sofa,Cuci Springbed,Cuci Karpet,Cuci Kursi Kantor,Cuci Sofa Bed,Cuci Kursi Kantor,Cuci Jok Mobil,Cuci Sofa Jakarta.

From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

Sometimes it seems as though for some people, the only thing to be ashamed of is shame itself.

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

Mr. Haroche was a founder of Liberty Travel, which grew from a two-man operation to the largest leisure travel operation in the United States.

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Hired in 1968, a year before their first season, Mr. Fanning spent 25 years with the team, managing them to their only playoff appearance in Canada.

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.